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35 years ago, all surgeries were very invasive and patient deep sedation or general anesthesia was justified. Today, with the practice of minimally invasive surgery, the procedures have become shorter and easier from the patient prospective.

The techniques of sedation have followed the trend of surgery. Oral sedation has become the preferred and most popular technique. Dr. Costandi offers gas analgesia.  We use a Board Certified Anesthesiologist for intra venous sedation and general anesthesia.